Lately, a few of us around the office have been bugging the product development team (jokingly) to come out with a Sicilian course. This begs the question, isn’t Sicilian just a dialect of Italian? It turns out there is actually a good deal of debate over this subject.

Some linguists believe that Sicilian may have actually been the first Romance Language, arising from a vulgar form of Latin spoken by Roman military men and everyday people. It is placed in the Italiano meridionale-estremo group of languages along with the Greek influenced Calabrian dialects of southern Italy, and actually has at least eleven regional dialects of its own.

The Sicilian language has been shaped by many years of foreign influence, occupation, and conquest. Unlike Italian, which is almost entirely Latin based, Sicilian has elements of Greek, Arabic, French, Catalan, and Spanish. This can be seen in many Sicilian words, like “azzizzari” (to embellish, adorn) from the Arabic “aziz” (beautiful), or “foddi” (angry), which can be traced to the Norman French “fol.”

Grammatically, Sicilian is also very different from Italian. For example, all the pronouns for I, he, she, you, and them are different in Sicilian.  Also, take into account that Sicilian does not distinguish between plural endings for verbs, using the same conjugations for masculine and feminine nouns. In Italian, the plural form differs according to gender, and there is much more concern about agreement between nouns and adjoining adjectives.

A great deal of the actual Italian influence on Sicilian has been since 1860, when, during the Italian Unification, Sicily became a part of Italy. More and more, there is risk today that the Sicilian language will eventually die out due to the influx of the Italian language into Sicily, becoming the preferred tongue among the natives. Even Sicilian emigrants, like my own family, speak a brand of the language which is different from what actual native Sicilians speak, simply because the language has changed so much even in the last 50 years.

So what’s the verdict? Have you met anyone who speaks Sicilian? Do you think that it is a language or a dialect?

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36 Responses to Sicilian and Italian… What's the difference?

  1. [...] There are many, many examples like these: think about the Arabic dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible, or Venetian, spoken in Venice, which is cognate with Italian but quite distinct from the standard language. Or Sicilian… [...]

  2. Thanks for this compelling article. I would like to come back in the not too distant future. Thanks again

  3. C says:

    There is extensive material arguing that Sicilian is not related to Italian, and therefore, is not a dialect. The closest relationship linguistically is Arabic, where many Sicilian words derive from. Scholars also need to keep in mind the political events over the years that has led to the Italianization of Sicilian words, most recently at the hands of Mussolini.

    • Yana Homutetski says:

      Hello,
      Thank you for your great and informative comment. :-) do you speak Sicilian?

    • amedeo says:

      Most of the words in Sicilian are derived from Latin, not Arabic.

      • Peter Renardo ( says:

        This is true, however approximately 300 Sicilian words are derived from Arabic, mostly being agricultural words, but the overall language is Latin derived, along with French from the Normans, Spanish and Greek.

      • Peter Renardo ( says:

        and this is because even certain Latin words were originally from Arabic and Greek

  4. T.R. says:

    I speak Sicilian! If you search on google books, you will see that there have been dictionaries (vocabolario), grammars, and other works written in Sicilian since at least the year 1030. The most interesting thing is that Sicilian was often referred to in those works as “lingua siciliana” and not dialetto. Sicilian was only relegated to dialect status after the unification of Italy in the 1860s. Even then the Sicilians rebelled against the latest invader: the Italians. Since that time, Sicilian has gradually sounded and looked more Italian. Another blow to Sicilian came during Mussolini’s reign when he sent in the army to combat the Mafia, unjustly imprisoned thousands, fined individuals for speaking Sicilian in public and created a nationalistic, anti-multiculturalism campaign aimed at the minorities and border peoples (Sardinians, Sicilians, Friulians, etc.). He went as far as to have changed the original Sicilian (and non-Latin based root) toponyms like Girgenti > Agrigento, Castrogiovanni > Enna because they weren’t Italian or Roman enough. Mussolini even went as far as to say Maltese was a dialect of Italian! While Malta didn’t have to worry about this campaign being a separate country, Sicilians suffered this brain-washing for decades and it still persists today. In the 1960s, with agriculture in decline, with emigration now aimed at northern Italy and northern Europe instead of the Americas, with industrialization booming, Sicily saw a huge change in demographics. Millions of people left the island, and thousands left the country side for the cities where Italianization was more rampant. Some of the emigrants to northern Italy even came back with Italian too. In a place where generations of children learned everything they needed to know (including language)in the home, or on the farm, or in the family shop at a young age, now had to go to school where Italian was drilled into their heads for years at the expense of losing Sicilian or changing it. Then there was TELEVISION! This also changed the voice of Sicily with mass media now bringing Italian into the homes of every Sicilian with a TV (or radio). In fact, last year during the 150th anniversary of Italy, Rai Radiotelevisione italiana put out a dozen commercials bragging about how they helped Italians finally speak Italian and create the Italian language. As Sicilian slowly slips away with the older generations who pass on, there’s been a struggle the last decade to combat this trend. Sicilian independentist and autonomist movements (yes they exist, since the founding of Italy!) have been pushing to have Sicilian made the official or co-official language of Sicily alongside Italian, Gallo-Sicilian and Sicilian-Arbëreshë. More and more people are becoming aware that Sicilian is a language and that it was only a dialect because the Italians said it was. For Italy to exist, it had to have one language and a strong patriotism. There was no room for Sicilian, Sardinian, Neapolitan, Venetian, Frulian, etc. As Massimo D’Azeglio said at the time of unification “fatta l’Italia, bisogna fare gli italiani” (with Italy made, now it’s time to make Italians) and the only way to accomplish this was to have a cohesive language. So as they say the victor writes the history books and anything non-Italian, history, culture, or language, has been suppressed in the public school system since. Call it cultural genocide, cultural amnesia, it was a deliberate campaign to elevate Italian at the expensive of everything else. This is why the so-called language or dialect debate exists today. Linguists around the world agree Sicilian is a language with a dozen dialects and hundreds of subdialects. Not sure today, but the city of palermo used to have a subdialect for every neighborhood! The only people to disagree are the Italians and certain Sicilians afraid that Sicily will regain its language, autonomy, and independence. I hope this clears up the reasons for this silly debate and why it shouldn’t even be a debate at all.

    In closing, I’ll leave you the following references to check on google books so you can decide for yourself if Sicilian is a language or dialect:

    - Lu rebellamentu di Sichilia. Codice della Biblioteca regionale di Palermo (note page I and how it looks nothing like Italian!)
    - Vocabolario domestico classificato della Lingua Siciliana (1851)
    - Lezioni filologiche sulla Lingua Siciliana (1855)

    Also see the websites:
    - ilsiciliano.net
    - linguasiciliana.org
    - linguasiciliana.it
    - scn.wikipedia.org
    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_language#Unique_sounds
    - http://www.amiciziafraipopoli.org/documenti-provitina-santamissa.htm
    - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJDv36EL4JU
    - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1uXUhHgsjcQ

    If you do a Sicilian language course check the Kademia du Krivu in Palermo at “Amicizia fra i Popoli” (see above) or the Sicilian Cultural Institute of America in New York which both offer Sicilian courses. Antudu!

    • amedeo says:

      Besides the excellent comment above, I would like to point out that Sicilian language was officially born in the 13th century, under emperor Frederc II, when was created the poetry of “dolce stil novo” which gave birth to the sonet (by Jacopo da Lentini).
      The birth of Sicilian poetry, as a matter of fact , is the birth of Italian language.
      Sicilian poetry was greatly studied later on by the Tuscan poets (see Dante in “de vulgari eloquentia”).
      They copied much of it, translating it and introducing into Tuscanian many of its words once adapted to Tuscanian language.
      Tuscanian language later on was chosen as Italian official language.
      So, it is probably more correct to say than Tuscanian (and then Italian) is a Sicilian dialect than vice versa.

      • Peter Renardo ( says:

        and it was Wolfgang von Goethe, who said “To see Italy but not Sicily is not to see Italy at all, for Sicily is the root to everything”

    • Peter Renardo ( says:

      My grandmother was from Castrogiovanni, when she migrated to America in 1920. Then, Mussolini created the Province of Enna in 1927, and re-named Castrogiovanni Enna as the procince’s capital city.

    • Chalutz says:

      Thank You T.R very Informative and well written.

  5. Hello! – I would like to comment a bit on this as well…as Im a proud 2nd generation Sicilian-American (siculumiricanu) – my pappa’s origins hailing from Palermo, Sicilia – and half-Latino (I also have Greek lineage as well…apo tin Sikelias) ~ I’d have to say definitely….the Sicilian language is “a genuine language” in its own right!

    Growing up, I’ve learned from my pappa Italian….but I also grew up learning some words in Sicilian….not knowing the difference, I asked my pappa….and he would always fascinate me, saying “it’s a whole different language from Italian” — for years, I regarded “Siculu” as an exotic mysterious tongue, that has sparked my curiosity ever since…

    Over the years, understanding my roots better…I’ve learned to appreciate the Sicilian language more and more, I started to learn much more of it….apart from Italian (Which I still understand and speak as well, but now it feels rather foreign to me…lol) – while Sicilian, still exotic-sounding….is becoming more familiar and less foreign to me….I feel more comfortable speaking it in public than merely in the home -

    My understanding is that the Sicilian language (not merely a dialect…as it has it’s own dialects) is at the very core of what it means to be a Sicilian…..and I find it a shame to be it being changed or corrupted by the “Italianization” that has taken place over the years since the “Risorgimento” period of Garibaldi….and the preference of today’s generation only knowing Italian, and abandoning the native tongue…..(even more sadder, is to hear what some young Sicilians have to say about the language, “that it’s a bastardized version of Italian, and not graceful”)

    It’s quite sad indeed….I feel that it is up to us, to revive the Sicilian language in today’s modern times – to not just be recognized as some “dialect” spoken only at home….but be used more in public…and eventually have a more “official” status in Sicily….(both Italian & Sicilian can co-exist…like in Ireland, with “English” and native “Irish”) – there have been attempts to preserve and revive Sicilian to the public via written texts, proverbs, poems, and even through song….(popular Sicilian musical groups like “Agricantus” – who sing completely in Sicilian) – hopefully, the school system will establish courses in Sicilian as well….to keep the language intact and very much alive…

    With its centuries of many cultural influences from other languages, (Greek, Arabic, Spanish, Norman..etc..) — has produced a tongue that is very much a distinctive entity…a colorful exotic and vibrant tongue with its own alpahbet, vowel system, grammar, syntax, vocabulary and even the pronounciation of words…..(even the “ethnologue” describes Sicilian as distinct enough to be considered a separate language) – I hope to see “Lu Siculu” continue to grow more strength and recognition over time….

    “Ju sugnu Siculumiricanu, nta lu cori” – AMMUNI!!

    • amedeo says:

      Good post;
      And congratulation for learning Sicilian.
      Although I do not know which Sicilian dialect you are actually learning (it will probably depend on where your family is coming from.
      Just one thing.
      Your father in Italian language is your “papa’”.(with the accent on final a).
      In Italian language “pappa” is something you eat or, in the slang, is the “protector” of the prostitutes.
      So hearing from a girl “my pappa” is not very…nice

    • Chalutz says:

      Wonderful

  6. Yannaki Arrizza says:

    I also forgot to mention: when people ask me, “What’s the difference?” – i always say…well…it’s like the difference between Spanish Vs. Portuguese! (And Sicilian at times does sound like Portuguese when spoken) — as an analogy, i consider “Spanish” to be like the Italian of Latin-America, while “Portuguese” would be like the Sicilian of Latin-America.

  7. AMANDA PEPE says:

    FOUND THIS TO BE VERY INTERESTING MY GRAND FATHER ALWAYS SAID Sicilian WAS DIFFERENT

    • Peter Renardo ( says:

      Sardinian sounds more like Portuguese than Sicilian. Sicilian, just like Italian, does not use the letter “s” for plural words.

  8. amedeo says:

    One added bonus to being Sicilian is the fact that I can perfectly umderstan people speaking Italian.
    I can also understand quite well many of the Italian dialects.
    But, since Sicilian is a very different language, I can speak Sicilian without being understood (at all) by people speaking just Italian or its dialects.
    Italians find much easier understanding Spanish (or French or Portuguese) Sicilian than Sicilian.
    I myself instead may find difficult to fully undetstand people speaking Sicilian dialects different than mine or different from “standard” Sicilian.

  9. Tammy says:

    My grandfather always said he was Sicilian, NOT Italian & would argue quite vehemently this point. He spoke occasional words or phrases (and sang a song) that we have since learned are Sicilian-dud to my daughter taking Italian in college. He was proud of his heritage & I would love to learn Sicilian, but have no idea where to look.

    • Peter Renardo ( says:

      I took care of my Sicilian grandfather from the early 1970s until his death in 1978, and I learned many old Sicilian words, like “Bunacca” for giacca “Armali” for Animale, “barcuni” for balcone, “iddu and idda” for lui/lei, “cca” for qui, “unni” for dove, and many more. I am returning to Sicily this year, for my fifth visit to this beautiful land, and to see my cousins.

    • Dan Gerardi says:

      Two books are on the market: Karl Bonner “Basic Sicilian Grammar” and Gaetano Cippola “Mparanu lu sicilianu”

  10. Michael says:

    I met some Sicilians visiting the Boston North End. They were surprised that the Sicilian spoken in America resembled the Sicilian spoken n Sicily before WWII. I’ve heard the same from relatives who immigrated to the States after the war. But this hits on an interesting point,which is languages evolve and the evolution of many languages occur more rapidly among the natives than among those who immigrated to America. The Sicilian language as spoken in Sicily is continuing to evolve and change due to influence of standard Italian.

  11. Alessandro says:

    I’ll write as closely as I pronounce it and then translate

    senti ca,
    voggio dire
    sono molto contente che yo sacchio la lingua siciliana

    mi insigniato me mamma e pappa.
    non ti arribiare oh yo ti scorchi i gorni lol….
    i’ll leave the last one to you to havesome fun with at having a go at deciphering

    • Peter Renardo ( says:

      “Vogghu diri chi iu sacciu la lingua Siciliana”. In Sicilian, the u replaces the o, and i replaces the e at the ends of words.

  12. Alessandro says:

    The transalation was meant to appear next to the words but some reason didnt appear so here it is..
    listen up
    I want to say
    I am very happy that I know the sicialin language
    My mother and father taught me

  13. Gene says:

    It is a dialect of the Italian language, albeit very different than most dialects of Italian. That is because Sicily is an island, separated from mainland Italy and in such a strategic place, invaded by many foreign cultures. The Arabs, Greeks, Turks, Moors, Berbers, North Africans and other Europeans, like the French and Spanish when the kingdom of the “Two Sicilies” was under Spanish rule, i.e., Sicily and most of Southern Italy. Add to the pot that Italy was unified as one country late by European standards. In the 1860′s, before it was a patchwork of city states like Venice, Genova, Rome, Naples, etc. All had their own dialects and standard Italian from Florence was not pervasive or taught in schools widely. With unification, compulsory education, Mussolini and Fascism along with television, the Italian language was used and understood in all of Italy. Today, the country is 97.5% literate and every Italian citizen can understand, speak, read and write in proper Italian to one degree or another. Albeit with distinct local accents, much like the way we speak English from New York or Boston. The only exception being some very old people;(90 plus years of age,) in small, isolated hill towns that may still be illiterate. These numbers are shrinking as we speak ! However, as a “language” has far more in common with Latin than Greek or Arabic. These languages only left an influence and are not really the base of the dialect. Sicilian has a lot more in common with other dialects of Southern Italy, like Calabrian and Neopolitan and are mutually comprehensible to some degree. There are also many other dialects in Italy like Pugliese in the region of Bari in Puglia and Triestino in North-Eastern Italy, with Slavic influences that are also quite “strange” and not really understandable by those that do not speak it from the specific regions.

    • Peter Renardo ( says:

      Sicilian is NOT a “dialect of Italian”, it’s an Italian dialect, or language. They were speaking Sicilian before the official Italian language was created. It is primarily Latin derived, with Greek, Arabic, Spanish, French, and even Germanic influences.

    • Dan Gerardi says:

      NO, sicilian is not a dialect of Italian since it is a derivate of Latin and other languages of peoples that dominated the island. To say that it is a dialect is to ignore history. It is called a dialect for socio-political purposes.

  14. Frank pennisi says:

    I wrote a book, titled, “Sciatu Mio” my Sicilian grandmother would whisper to me, it means many things but when she said it to me I felt special, “Sciatu Mio , you are the reason why I breathe. The book spans three generations of the Parisi family, from 1850-1985, featuring Michael from Red Hook Brooklyn, his father Giuseppe, and his great grandfather, Barone Salvatore Parisi from Acireale Sicily.
    Historical events are interwoven with stories of the horrific treatment of the “Carusi” children for control of the sulfur mines in Floristella Sicily and the brutal mafia wars for control of the N.Y. Docks. Avail. On Amazon and Kindle.
    In college I took italian when I first spoke in class the professor in disgust, looked at me and said “you must be Sicilian”

  15. Olivier says:

    I come from a Sicilian/French family, I lived just outside of Palermo for the early part of my childhood (From birth to about 6/7 can’t remember the exact age, It’s been a while.) and I speak Italian/Sicilian, English and French.

    I find that not many Italians, at least outside of Italy know of the difference, I usually speak using the Sicilian language but always have to change for people unless they’re family.

    In answer to the wider question though- Hell yeah there should be a Sicilian course but then in saying that there should be a Catalonian course (Not sure if there is) as well.

  16. Dan Gerardi says:

    I grew up listinening to Marsalese and Palermitano in my house. Yes, Sicilian is a language in it’s own right but it’s unfortunate that even native Sicilians consider it a dialect rather than a language. I love our language for it’s colorful yet simple way of expressing ideas and such.
    There are a couple of Sicilian grammars available via Karl Bonner “Basic Sicilian Grammar” and Gaetano Cipolla “Mraramu lu sicilianu (lit. We learn Sicilian). Dr. Bonner’s book is dry and very scholarly while Prof. Cipolla’s book is more like a college textbook. Together they compliment each other. Prof. Cipolla writes from a Messinese point of view but is careful to prenent how words are said in other Sicilian “parrati” or local dialects. I hope this helps.

  17. Tim says:

    My family is from the province of Alessandria (in Piedmont) and I’ve read that even there the dialect of Piemontese is considered an “endangered language” because of societal pressure to stay modern by speaking mostly (or only) Italian. On one hand, I think that “all of Italy” should know and speak Italian so all Italians feel unified instead of excluded. On the other hand, I think all indigenous languages should remain also as a way to remember your own ancestral heritage. I personally feel ashamed and sad whenever someone, especially a non-Sicilian Italian says something bad about Sicily or its people. I’ve never been there, or anywhere in Italy for that matter, but I feel that a balance should be met where all regions have their own cultures preserved while at the same time having a sense of unity no matter where one travels throughout Italy. My Mother just returned from Cinque Terre (in Liguria) and said that the local people there are experiencing very similar things as the Sicilians are, including more than just the loss of native language. There’s poverty in the rural areas of northern Italy as well. I hope that all Italians unite from Sicilia all the way to Milano while holding onto their unique customs and traditions!

  18. Chalutz says:

    Great Article and Thread- Thanks to all the comments especially T.R.
    I myself am fortunate to have been taught Sicilian from my Mother (who was born in Petralia Sottana Prov Palermo) and my paternal grandparents (also from Petralia). I spent several summers there as a child and still visit often.
    I think it is so important to keep this beautiful language alive.
    There was a time , when I was younger, that I sometimes felt slightly embarrassed when speaking Sicilian, especially in Italy. Any Sicilian speaking traveler who visited the mainland should sympathize. I almost felt like I was better off speaking English.
    Fortunately I out grew that phase of my life a long time ago.
    In fact on our last few trips to Sicily I have had the great pleasure of seeing the joy that sometimes comes across peoples faces when I begin to speak Sicilian. A certain look develops, a look of acknowledgement, a look that even though we are strangers I know you.

    Finally FYI..If anyone out there who is Sicilian American and has relatives who originally settled in the Ironbound aka Down Neck aka East Ward section of Newark NJ your family may be originally from Petralia Sottana as many Petralese settled there in the early 1920′s.

    To quote Yannaki Arrizza
    “Ju sugnu Siculumiricanu, nta lu cori”

  19. Chalutz says:

    Great Article and Thread- Really enjoying all of the comments especially T.R.
    Sicilian is a language, a language which I am fortunate enough to speak. I spent several summers as a child in my family’s hometown of Petralia Sottana, Provinci Palermo. It was there, and because of my Sicilian born mother, that my education of this beautiful language began. My paternal grandparents were also born in Petralia they too taught me a frozen in time level of Petralese. I must say there was a time, especially when travelling in Italy, which I was made to feel inadequate when speaking Sicilian. During our recent trips to Sicily though that has all changed and I have had several wonderful experiences.
    When speaking now I often am given a look of amazement, a look of amazement that turns into a look of total joy. It’s almost as if a realization hits them that they are speaking to an old friend…a friend that at first was not recognized.
    It brings me great joy to visit and talk to as many people as possible, the reactions are so diverse. I still encounter negative reactions by the less educated but the positive reactions are inspiring.
    Finally and FYI Many people, including my paternal grandparents, from Petralia Sottana settled in the Ironbound aka Down Neck aka East Ward section of Newark NJ in the early 20th century. So if you are of Sicilian descent and your relatives settled in Down Neck Newark you may be Petralese.
    To quote Yannaki Arrizza “Ju sugnu Siculumiricanu, nta lu cori”

  20. mag says:

    I am not at all Italian (Irish) but always fascinated with everything Italian and especially Sicilian. I have tuned into this website hoping to find the answer to what may be a really crass question.. In the books of Andrea Camilleri what kind of Sicilian language (or regional version) is he using? I know he’s from Porto Empedocle as supposedly is the fictional Montalbano. I majored in Italian in college and can understand most of the dialogue in the novels. This naturally makes me suspect that it might be a kind of watered down Sicilian for general readers. Any comments?

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